The History Of Toyota MARK II
The Toyota Mark II is a model name used by Toyota for several decades.
The first Mark II, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an upscale version of the Toyota Corona sedan sold by Toyota. By the 1970s, the Mark II used a separate platform from the plain Corona and was much larger. Once the platform was separated, the car became known simply as the Toyota Mark II.
Subsequent Mark II models spawned several variations, each of them sedans but with different styling. The sportier Toyota Chaser and Toyota Cresta appeared in the late-1970s.
The Mark II found much success throughout its life as the definitive private-use executive car in Japan (the larger Toyota Crown was considered more of a chauffeur-driven car for upper management, and the Toyota Century is the flagship sedan on a presidential level). The Mark II and its variants often sold in numbers comparable to the smaller Toyota Corona and Toyota Corolla. Popularity peaked in the 1980s and the Mark II was available with engines ranging from a 1.8 liter 4-cylinder to a turbocharged 2.5-liter than pushed the 280 horsepower (209 kW) self-imposed limit of the Japanese auto industry. Like the first-generation Corolla in 1966, the Mark II would come to symbolize Toyota's winning formula of capturing its customer's upward aspirations through excellent perceived quality.
The Corona Mark II, was designed as a model line that was between the top model Crown and the Corona. Basically it's a slightly higher spec than a Corona, with many of the same features of the larger Crown. The four door sedan was designated as the T60 and the 2 door coupé the T70. In 1970 there were minor cosmetic changes in the front grille. The 1600cc 7R series engine was replaced by the 1700cc 6R series engine. A year later the 1500cc 2R models were replace by the 1600cc 12R engines.
US exported version for the same model year, often include the more powerful R series motors compared to other regions. While Japan and other markets often had 1.5L 2R (1500cc), 1.6L 7R/ 12R (1600cc) to 1.7L 6R (1700cc) models as well.
RT62 sedans and RT72 coupé features the 1.8L 8R (1900cc).
RT63 sedan, RT73 coupé, RT78/ RT79 station wagons feature 2L 18R (2000cc)
The second generation Corona Mark II was based on a new X series platform abandoning the compact Corona T series chassis. X20's are referring to the 2-door sedans, while the X10's are the sedans and wagons. The i6 M was added to form the L series, in order to compete better with the Nissan Skyline. The dramatically different styling used on this series is similar to the Renault 16.
Available engine choices include
- i4 1700 6 R
- i4 2000 18 R
- i4 2000 18 R-G DOHC
- i6 2000 M
In 1973, there was a minor change. An entry level wagon was introduced with a 5-speed MT. EFI was introduced on the i4 2000 18R engine. The i4 1700 6 R engine was replaced by the 1800 16R.
The Crown line of cars was no longer being exported due to poor sales. This left a gap in Toyota North America's line up, with only smaller compact cars. The second generation fortunately increased in size. The Corona Mark II would be the only sensible option for families transitioning from larger American Detroit cars in the midst of the oil crisis. In 1973 it was marketed in the US as a fully loaded car with few added options. Standard features include a 6 cylinder SOHC engine, 4 speed manual transmission, front disc brakes, heater defroster, bucket seats. Some available options are, 8-track audio, power steering, air conditioning and 3-speed automatic transmission.
The third generation was introduced with a more upscale European type design. The lines are a combination of the previous generations American with a British front end. In 1978, this model generation was the last cars that feature the Toyopet name. The Grande trim was added. Grande's feature 6 cylinder engines.
In 1998, Toyota released a car called Progres. The Progres front end looks sort of like an updated version of the X30/ X40 series sedan. Example, both of them have a combination of round and squared lighting. The grille and bonnet also has similar shapes, size and lines.
ChaserFor more information, see Toyota Chaser.
The Toyota Chaser was released in 1977. Based on the same chassis as the Mark II, they are very similar. The idea of the Chaser was a sportier version of the Mark II, often with more powerful engines, turbo, and different suspension setups. On an overview that are virtually identical, with slightly different packages of options.
CressidaFor more information, see Toyota Cressida.
The Corona Mark II was sold overseas under the name Toyota Cressida, which was Toyota's flagship offering in the US and Australia. In Australia, the Cressida was withdrawn from sale in early 1993 on the X80 series so as not to compete against the new widebody Camry-Vienta, and Lexus ES300 and LS400. The Cressida was replaced by the first designed-for-America Toyota Avalon was introduced as Toyota's new US flagship.
The fourth generation Corona Mark II was launched in 1980. It was still badged as the Corona Mark II but many of the advertisement at the time simply refer to it as the Mark II. Power by either the 1G-EU, Turbo charged M-TEU, 5M-EU and fuel injected version of the 18R-GEU was available in the GT. A diesel version was also available. In 1982 the twin-cam 1G-GEU engine was added. In 1983 the automatic transmission was changed to the electronic controlled 4 speed.
This Mark II generation was considered successful spawning commercial, taxi and drivers training vehicles. This made the Mark II familiar to everyone in Japan, as just about everyones initial experience was learning to drive or riding in the taxi's based on them. The Mark II was fairly common along with the Corona as a Taxi, until the release of the Crown Comfort in 1995.
CrestaFor more information, see Toyota Cresta.
The Toyota Cresta was launched in 1980. Based on the same chassis as the Mark II, they are very similar. The goal of the Cresta was a higher class luxury version of the Mark II. Often available with two-tone paint and more interior convenience options. This ended up being more similar to the Cressida. The introduction of the Camry in the USA, transformed the Cressida into a near luxury car.
The 1984 model dropped the Corona name and simply called Mark II. This generation Mark II had a lot of rivals including the Nissan Leopard. The Mark II continued to remain very viable for fleet sales, government agencies and taxi services.
Station wagon/ Van/ Estate (1984-1997)
The station wagon version of the chassis was produced from 1984 to 1997. That's 13 years without a major reworking. Common usage of the wagons was for service industry. Examples include, bulkier local parcel delivery, electronic and mechanical repair shops. It was finally superseded with the Mark II Qualis. Based on the same platform as the Toyota Vista/ Toyota Camry Gracia. The Qualis was than replaced by the Mark II Blit in 2002.
First released in August 1988. The height of the car is lower than previous and generation. It's about the same height as the second generation Mark II.
The Grande G series in 1989 uses the 3.0L 7M-GE engine. Featuring Traction Control and ABS.
In 1990, 1JZ-GE and 1JZ-GTE (280ps) is first introduced on this generation replacing the 1G-GZE. The GT did not have MT transmission available, and were strictly AT.
After 1992, the X80 series continued to be produced for taxi fleet vehicles until 1995, when the Crown Comfort finally took over.
First released in October 1992, the Mark II was revised during the period. It received a new front bumper (including grill), rear bumpers and tail lights and some weight mainly do to regulations.
The X90's were available in six different trim levels. All trims came standard with fully automatic air conditioning and faux wood interior paneling. The base GL was available in either standard or automatic with a choice of a diesel or petrol 4-cylinder engine. The slightly more up-market Groire had the same engine and transmission options as the GL with more standard features over its inferior.
The next four trim levels featured only petrol straight sixes for engines and either rear- or all-wheel drive. The Grande was available with either a 2.0L 1G-FE or 2.5L 1JZ-GE and either a four speed automatic or 5-speed manual for 1G-equipped Mark II Grandes. The Grande was otherwise identical to the Groire in terms of options and equipment. The Grande G was available with either the aforementioned 1JZ or a 3.0L 2JZ-GE mated to an automatic transmission and came with ABS and traction control standard.
The Tourer S came with a 1JZ-GE engine, 4-speed automatic and several options either standard (such as ABS and control) or not present (a factory limited-slip differential) in either the Grande or Grande G.
Lastly, the Tourer V had a reinforced body, sport suspension, and a twin-turbo 280horsepower (210kW) 2.5 liter 1JZ-GTE inline 6 engine. It also came from the factory with, traction control, ABS, an LSD and optional 5-speed transmission. The Mark II Tourer V was a popular choice among tuners, enthusiasts, and drifters.
Like it's predecessor, the X100 series Toyota Mark II was available in multiple trim levels. New for this production run was the introduction of all-wheel drive to Grande and Grande G as well as the use of Toyota's new VVTi system on its engines. Also new this year was the standardization of ABS and a new electronic traction control system. The Groire trim level was also dropped for this production run.
The base GL came with only the 2.4L 2L-TE turbo-diesel I4 mated to a 4-speed automatic. It came with basic features like power windows and door locks and automatic air-conditioning, but sportier options were only available on higher-level trims. However, traction control and ABS were available as options.
The Grande trim levels had a plethora of options and features available not limited to but including tilt-steering, standard ABS, traction control and AWD. The base Grande was powered by either the 2.0L 1G-FE inline 6 mated to a 5-speed manual transmission or 4-speed automatic, the 2.4L 2L-TE mated to a 4-speed auto from the GL or the 2.5L 1JZ-GE turning a 4-speed automatic as well. New for 1996 was the Grande Four: a four-wheel drive variant of the Grande, it was powered by the 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic transmission sending power to all wheels via a center differential. The Grande G's were available with either a 1JZ- or 2JZ-GE and a 4-speed automatic. The "G package" included leather anointments for the steering wheel and seats as well as power front seats. A Grande G Four was also offered with the 1JZ engine, 4-speed auto transmission and all-wheel drive.
The Tourer trim level carried on from the X90 series in both Tourer S and Tourer V. The Tourer S was powered by a naturally aspirated 1JZ-GE and mated to a 4-speed automatic. The Tourer V received some noticeable tweaks from its X90 series counterpart: along with the implementation of ETCS and VVTi, the engine now received forced induction through one large turbocharger as opposed to two smaller ones in a parallel configuration. According to Toyota, this smoothed out the torque curve allowing the engine to deliver more torque at a lower RPM and with VVTi, raised the compression ratio (from 8.5:1 to 9.0:1 also making it an interference engine) and boosted the engine's fuel economy.
In celebrating the Mark II's 30th anniversary, a special Trente (French for 30) version was offered as was a FWD station wagon.
A 35th Anniversary REGALIA edition was reintroduced. Often called Grande 35th.
Mark II Blit (2002-2007)
The rear wheel drive Mark II Blit was introduced in 2002, replacing the front wheel drive Mark II Qualis.
VEROSSA (2001-2004)For more information, see Toyota Verossa.
Sales began to slide as customers moved toward minivans, SUVs, and sometimes kei cars in light of Japan's extended economic slump. Toyota began reconstructing its luxury sedan line, eliminating the Chaser and Cresta and introducing new nameplates such as the Toyota Verossa, and the slightly smaller Toyota Progres, Toyota Brevis. Sales did not improve with the Verossa, while the other models did slightly better but unspectacular, they were later discontinued in 2007.
Mark X (2004-current)For more information, see Toyota Mark X.
The latest Mark II was released in 2004, renamed the Mark X. This redesign is a consciously more sporting effort in an attempt to revive the nameplate. The Mark X model being sold in Japan is fitted with the 2.5L 4GR-FSE and 3.0L 3GR-FSE
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
More About Toyota MARK II