The History Of Toyota Corona EXIV
The Toyota Corona (Japanese: トヨタ・コロナ) is an automobile manufactured by the Japanese automaker Toyota between 1957 and 2002. The Corona was Toyota's second oldest nameplate, behind the Crown. During Toyotas early days, the Crown, Corona and Land Cruiser were the only vehicles made, with the Corona in multiple body configurations, including trucks and delivery vans. Traditionally, the competitor from Nissan was the Nissan Bluebird. The word Corona is Latin for "crown".
The Corona became massively successful in export markets: confusion easily arises because Toyota (like Volkswagen with their Passat and Mitsubishi with their Colt) applied model names inconsistently in different places. Following the 1969 parallel introduction of the Corona Mark II (which in certain markets mutated into the Cressida in 1973) there were disparate models sharing the Corona name. As time went by, models branded in much of Asia as Coronas turned up in European markets as Carinas, while ten years later in North America the Corona was successfully replaced by the larger Camry. In addition, because of the similarities in names, it is a very common mistake to confuse the Corona with the much smaller Toyota Corolla.
The first generation Corona was designed with parts from the previous generation Crown and Master, due to a major restyle and enlargement of that model. Many of the body panels were cut down from the Master that ceased production. Also available was the ST16/ PT16 van versions. The 997cc (60.8cuin) OHV P series engine was used, but the regulations regarding taxi's at the time were 910cc (56cuin). Dealers restricted the power for taxi vechicles. Due to the upgrade in dimensions of the Crown, Toyota needed to continue manufacturing a vehicle with similar size dimensions to the first Crown, primarily to be used for taxi usage. This vehicle saw the introduction of a monocoque chassis structure, and a independent front suspension using double wishbones. Due to the monocoque chassis, Toyota was able to produce a vehicle under 1,000kg (2,200lb). This series was only available as a four door sedan. Due to improvements indroduced in 1959, this car was capable of traveling at 105km/ h (65mph).
The Tiara was a series of sedan models sold by Toyota Motor Corporation, as an export model of the Toyota Corona. It was introduced at a critical time for the company in North America. Their first flagship car, the Toyopet Crown, was unsuccessful in the US market, and was withdrawn, leaving only a single vehicle, the Land Cruiser. At the time, there was little market for an off-road vehicle like the Land Cruiser. The front end styling is reminiscent of the 1955-1957 Ford Thunderbird.
The Tiara was supposed to sell alongside the Crown, as a smaller companion. Introduced in 1960, the car was powered by a 1.0 L P series motor. In 1961, Toyota introduced a more powerful 1.5L R series motor, the same motor from the Crown; an even larger 1.9 L engine was added in 1964. Fortunately for Toyota, the problems with the Crown were not seen on the Tiara, and the lighter body (400 lb less than the Crown) was sufficient for the R series engine. The Tiara station wagon was more popular for women. But nevertheless, it sold better and had a lot less mechanical problems. The Tiara ended up being the only sedan sold by Toyota in the USA until the reworked second-generation Crown appeared. By that time, the Tiara had been redesigned and given the Corona label from the Japanese domestic market. A total of 318 of the vehicles were sold in the US.
The third generation was introduced September 1964, and was known in Japan for its range of bodystyles offered. Aside from the sedan, variants included a 3-door station wagon, two pickup variants, one of which had an extended cab with an canopy and a 5-door hatchback, which looked reminiscent of a Renault 16. The Corona appeared with a distinctly different appearance on the front of the vehicle, utilizing a slanted front and encompassing quad headlights within the boundaries of the grille. Previous generations used a single, two-way headlight installed on top and separate from the grille. The Italian designer Battista Farina assisted in the appearance of the new Corona. A public demonstration of the new Corona's performance was done on the Meishin Expressway, where the new model was tested to 100,000kilometres (62,137.1mi), and was able to sustain speeds of 140km/ h (87mph). The Corona was released one year after the debut of the Corona's traditional competitor, the Nissan Bluebird. Toyota introduced a smaller vehicle to address the market that needed a more fuel efficient vehicle, called the Toyota Corolla March 1968. This allowed the Corona to increase in size and offer more passenger and cargo room over previous generations.
The Toyota automatic transmission, dubbed Toyoglide, was introduced on this version of the Corona. The 4R engine that had a displacement of 1587 cc was equipped with a twin SU carburetor, and was capable of 90bhp (67kW; 91PS). Disc brakes were also introduced for the front wheels. Exports of this Corona proved popular in the USA and Europe, with increased engine performance and durability improvements over previous versions. In September 1967, Toyota was producing 80,000 cars, with 30,000 being the Corona.
Mark II (T60/ T70 series)For more information, see Toyota Mark II.
1968, saw the release of the a plusher model called the Corona Mark II, after 1972 it was spun off on to a separate platform. The late 60's and early 70's vehicle were powered by 1 1900cc I-4cyl engine
Four-cylinder engine choices were 1.5, 1.6 (12R), 1.7, 1.9, and 2.0 (18R) liter gasoline.
In the United States, the 1970s were probably the Corona's high point, helped by the fuel crises of 1973 and 1979. Competition for sales continued from the Nissan Bluebird, and from a new competitor from the Mazda RX-2 in 1971, with an introduction to the USA in 1972.
The Corona truck was no longer manufactured due to the introduction of the Toyota Hilux in 1969.
The T-80 series Corona was introduced February 1970 and was a complete redesign, and was developed on a separate platform from the Toyota Corona Mark II, which became a larger, more comfortable and powerful car, where the Corona remained focused on fuel economy. Body styles were further reduced to a two door hardtop coupe, a four door sedan and station wagon. The engine continued to use a OHV on base level vehicles, and SOHC on the two door coupes, and the engines used in the Mark II were shared with the Corona. Trim levels offered were the 1500DX, 1600DX and the 1600SL. A mild restyle appeared August 1972. Among the mechanical updates were electronic fuel injection installed on the 18R-E with a SOHC engine design that appeared in the two door coupe. The 18R-B had twin SU Carburetors, with a electroniclly controlled automatic transmission, labeled ECT. A performance oriented Corona sedan was introduced in 1970, called the Toyota Carina. The 2.0 liter engine appeared in the 2000SL and the 2000SR with fuel injection.
August 31, 1973 saw the introduction of the Corona T100-Series, which continued to be built as a 4-door sedan, 2-door hardtop coupe and 4-door station wagon. Engines were 1.6 and 2.0 liters SOHC. In North America, the 20-R 2.2 liter engine was used. The high performance 2000 GT Sedan and Hardtop Coupe with 18R-G twin cam engine were only offered in Japan. The two speed automatic was no longer offered. The face lift revised the hood and grille, and enlarged the tail lights. The Wagon featured wood panel body claddings. North American models had longer bumpers (hiding recoverable bumper shocks) to meet local 5mph (8.0km/ h) impact standards; they gained standard radial tires in 1975. Side door impact upgrades were installed in all doors. This series also saw the standard (on some models) Electro Sensor Panel which monitored fluid and bulb status. Some models had a shifter mounted on the steering column, which may have been Toyota's first serious attempt to compete with American brands like General Motors and Ford. Sales of the Corona continued to grow as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The two door hardtop continued, with trim levels 1600GL, 1800SR and the 2000SR, with the coupe proving popular in the USA, but proved to be more popular in Japan.
The Corona saw a new competitors in both Japan, Europe and the USA from the Honda Accord in 1976, and the Subaru DL in 1974. The advantage the Honda and Subaru had over the Corona was that both vehicles were front wheel drive, while the Corona was rear wheel drive. In response to Honda's CVCC emissions, Toyota introduced "TTC-C" and "TTC-V" with a catalyst system. In Japan, the 12R-U engine was designed to run on LPG for taxi usage, starting in October 1975. The 18R-E engine with fuel injection that was used in the 2000SL and 2000SR discontinued production due to emission issues. In November 1975, the 1800 saw the removal of the twin carburetors due to emission regulations, which saw the discontinuation of the 1800SR coupe. June 1976 saw the installation of a catalyst system included with the TTC-C system.
January 1977 saw a minor appearance change to both the interior and exterior, with a revised grille.
Introduced in Japan in September 1978, the T130-Series Corona featured a boxy design with more elegant lines. 4-door Sedan, 2-door Hardtop Coupe and new 5-door Liftback were manufactured with 1.6 or 2.0 liter engines. Minor change and the 1.8 liter 3T engine were added in 1981. The North American Corona shared the 2.2 liter 20R engine with the Celica. Emission regulations passed in 1978 were applied across the range of models offered. The 1.8L engine was equipped with electronic fuel injection as well as the 2.0L engine.The front and rear suspension was upgraded to independent struts. Disc brakes were installed at the front and rear wheels on the 2000SL and 2000GT. The transmission on the 2000CX 3 speed automatic with overdrive and a floor mounted transmission selector (although the column shifter also carried over from the previous generation). LPG was used as the fuel for versions used for taxi usage. Power steering was now standard on all models, as well as power assist brakes. In Japan, March 1981 saw the introduction of the 25th anniversary edition of the Corona, and was nicely equipped, including power windows, locks as well as 60 other improvements. The top model was the 2000GT.
The T130 was the last Corona in the USA where Sedan, Wagon and Liftback were offered in Base and LE models. The Corona was replaced for the 1983 model year by the larger front wheel drive Camry sedan and four door hatchback. The five door hatchback had rear seats that had a 60:40 split to assist carrying large items. Internationally, the Camry outranks the Corona and the sportier Corona, called the Carina, due to its larger dimensions, and the Camry's front wheel drive platform, which competes with the Honda Accord, Nissan Auster and Mazda Capella.
Toyota Australia manufactured sedans and wagons using 1.9L Holden Starfire engines, badged in Toyota engine terminology 1X.
The longest running Corona T140 series appeared as a rear wheel drive sedan, coupe or wagon which began production in 1981 and continued manufacture by Toyota Australia until 1987, by that time the T150 series was already released, the T140 series was also brought out in a taxicab version called the CT141 specifically for Hong Kong,Macau and Singapore.1982
1600 Standard, DX, GL, SL (82)4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe (standard only sedan) 88hp (12T-U) rigid rear axle 4 speed gearbox (SL 5 speed) brakes: front disc, rear drum 1800 DX, GL, CX, LX, SL (82)4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe 95hp (13T-U) rigid rear axle 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear drum 1800 EFI SL, EFI SX4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe 105hp (3T-EU) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc 2000 CX4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe 105hp (21R-U) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc 2000 GT II, GT4dr sedan, 2dr hardtop, 4dr liftback coupe 135hp (18R-GEU) rigid rear axle with anti-roll bar 5 speed gearbox brakes: front disc, rear disc1983 onwards
Standard, DX, GX4dr sedans 83hp (3A-U) GX, EX4dr sedan/ 2dr hardtop 100hp (1S-U) GT4dr sedan/ 2dr hardtop 130hp (4A-GE) GT-T, GT-TR4dr sedan/ 2dr hardtop 160hp (3T-GTEU)
The CT141 was a spinoff of the T140, used specially as taxicabs in Hong Kong, Japan, Macau and Singapore. It shared the T140's 1562 cc engine. Alterations were made to the headlights, grille and the overall design. The car was unavailable in the mainstream market. The car was popular initially, but lost popularity when the Comfort was introduced.
Most of this models ever sold around the world have been scrapped; Macau is one of the only countries still using it.
The Corona was eventually dropped in Australia in favor of the larger Camry, but in New Zealand, Toyota continued to offer versions of the Corona, assembled locally at Toyota's plant in Thames, New Zealand. Later, Toyota New Zealand followed Australia's lead and dropped the Corona, instead marketing the Australian-built Camry as its offering in the mid-size segment of the market and had unique sheetmetal. This was later succeeded by a four-door hardtop called the Corona EXIV.
Toyota's large family car lineup in Europe was quite confusing when looking over the past 25 years. The 1970 and 1981 Carina models were sold in most of Europe, but in 1984 they were replaced with the "Carina II" — which was really the 1983 model Corona as sold in Japan with alterations to the headlights, grille and trim — most notably it had a lot less chrome than the Corona.
It eventually faced competition from the smaller Toyota Carina as that model grew in size. Because of Japanese taxation laws, both models got to the maximum 1700mm (66.9in) permitted for a lower tax bracket and in the 1980s and early 1990s, were the same size. A Corona coupé was spun off in the mid-1980s. It was based on the 4th Generation Celica notchback Coupe, but with fixed headlights instead of retractable.
The Corona T170 Series was launched in Japan in December 1987 which in 1988 became new Carina II in Europe.
Introduced in March 1992 the new Corona made its European debut at Geneva Auto Show as Carina E, which replaced the Carina II. The Carina E was built at Toyota's factory in Burnaston, Derbyshire, England, United Kingdom. The UK produced Carina E is notorious to have some parts of slightly lower quality than the one produced in Japan.
This generation of Corona was called Corona Absolute in Indonesia, or Corona Exsior in the Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. Generally the Carina E was offered in XL and GL trim levels, but in UK they were marketed as S, GS, CD, and CDX. The high performance GT-i with 3S-GE engine was offered in small numbers in certain European countries.
The T190 is the last Corona for most export market, trim levels are XL, GX, and GLi with 1.6, 1.8, or 2.0 liter four-cylinder engines.
In the Philippines, the Corona was only available with the 2.0 liter I4 3S-FE engine throughout its production from 1993-1998. Early examples of the Corona T190 (ST191) looks similar to the 1992 Japanese spec model. It only has the 2.0 EX Saloon variant, with a choice of a 5-speed manual or a 4-speed automatic transmission. The 1995 model has the facelifted exterior, having the front and rear bumpers with the black trim, and the standard 3 piece rear spoiler. The Exsior was introduced in 1996, this time with extended bumpers and red/ amber taillights and garnish. Another variant of the Corona Exsior was the LE, it has genuine leather seats, faux dash wood panel, and electronic air purifier/ ionizer as standard equipment. It was eventually replaced in 1998 with the Toyota Camry 2.2.
The five-door model was called the Corona SF in Japan, while the station wagon had become a separate line there, from 1993, called the Toyota Caldina.
Production in Japan ended in 1995, but in Europe and South East Asia lasted until 1997.
A final eleventh generation was built between 1996 and 2001 for the Japanese home market, with one particular model called the Toyota Corona Premio that was spun off into an independent model called the Premio (coded ST210), and a related model called the Allion after 2001. The Corona Premio was offered as Base Premio, Premio E, and Premio G. Four-cylinder engine choices are 1.6 liter 4A-FE, 1.8 liter lean burn 7A-FE, and 2.0 liter 3S-FE. Diesel engines offered were 2.0 L 2C-T and later on replaced by more economical 2.2 L 3C-T. This is the last model using Corona name in Japan.
The T220 was built as sedan, liftback, and wagon. Only the Wagon was sold in Japan as the Caldina. The Sedan and Liftback were mainly sold in Europe as Avensis, and the lower grade model for taxi called Corona. Four-cylinder engines for the Avensis is 1.6, 1.8, 2.0 gasoline, and diesel. The Corona Taxi has turbo diesel. In South America, the Avensis is renamed Corona and powered by 2.0 liter 3S-FE engine.
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